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Hack-backs – options and limitations of cyber deterrence
The continuing rise of sophisticated state-supported cyberattacks has been one of the most crucial security developments of the last decade. An estimated 60 countries have developed offensive hacking capabilities as part of their asymmetric or hybrid warfare strategies. The U.S. Cyber Command has adopted an offensive doctrine that envisages counterattacks (“hack-backs”). European critics, however, have questioned cyber deterrence in general and hack-backs in particular due to escalation risks.