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Over the past 25 years Mongolia has benefited substantially from its ‘multi-pillar’ foreign policy. The country prioritised relations with its two powerful neighbours – Russia and China – creating a geopolitical context that has enhanced its security and economic growth. At the same time, Mongolia developed the concept of ‘third neighbours’ – large, global powers w...
Russia controls the natural gas but Ukraine has the bill. US$3.5 billion is owed to Russian energy giant Gazprom. Russia is squeezing Ukraine. It has ended gas price subsidies, is demanding up-front payment, and has threatened to cut gas supplies if bills are not paid. But Ukraine’s economy is already in crisis. The IMF has stepped in – but it has been warned that...
Professor Stefan Hedlund