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Tension between the Mediterranean Sea’s northern and southern shores is nothing new. In fact, it is ancient, dating back well before 1830, when France colonised Algeria in an effort to suppress the piracy, slave trade and smuggling that had infested those waters for centuries, and also to satisfy commercial interests.
A military response is needed to avoid the growth of real jihadist states in Africa. But Islamist groups benefit, in part, from the support of the populations and it will not be possible to contain people’s resentment for too long, even by installing strongmen – ‘good dictators’ - supported by Western countries. The terrorists’ funds must be cut off, diplomatic wor...
Many African countries are suffering from conflict. Tribal and religious differences are involved, along with the division of natural resources. In some cases a strong leader may bring stability, but many experts advocate African federalism – the creation of subsidiary entities within the states. The borders inherited from the colonial period have demonstrated thei...