Fears of an overwhelming Russian ground invasion of Ukraine did not materialise. But the conflict has given the Kremlin the chance to flex its military muscles, deploy irregular forces while remaining insistent that it is not involved, and gamble – successfully – that Nato would not intervene militarily. If Moscow now destabilises other countries with the same methods, the West will again risk being locked into a disorganised retreat by way of empty threats.

THE CRISIS in Ukraine was dominated in its early stages by fears of an overwhelming Russian ground invasion.

Nato sources es...

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Professor Stefan Hedlund
It is true that the mobilisation against Ukraine did involve an element of overwhelming force. But it is also true that actual action on the ground has been undertaken by a motley crew of irregular forces
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